Tulsa schools see big boost in Hispanic enrollment in last five years
BY ANDREA EGER & KIM ARCHER World Staff Writers
Sunday, August 19, 2012
8/19/12 at 7:40 AM
Check school-by-school demographic trends for Tulsa Public Schools, 2007-08 through 2011-12.
View a graphic detailing classroom student populations.
A steady influx of Hispanic children combined with student mobility among schools and rising poverty rates have led to a changing face for Tulsa-area classrooms over the last five years.
"We are not seeing a large transfer population. These are students who live in our area," said Principal Ginger Bunnell, whose school, Memorial Junior High, has seen a marked increase in Hispanic students even as its overall enrollment has fallen by 16 percent since 2007. "We provide translators for open house and parent conferences and make sure any materials sent home are provided in Spanish as well. They are very concerned about their children and want to know how they're doing, so we want to make sure they can connect with us."
The demographics of Tulsa Public Schools have shifted dramatically, even as enrollment has remained level at about 41,000. With an enrollment of 8,021 - nearly 2,700 more than were in TPS in 2007 - Hispanic students now fill more than one-quarter of the district's seats and hold the majority at 10 of its roughly 75 sites.
All the while, the percentage of black and white students as part of the overall enrollment has dwindled - from 34.9 percent and 34.4 percent, respectively, in 2007-2008 to 29.5 percent and 28.7 percent in 2011-12.
Larry Smith, assistant superintendent for school accountability at TPS, said demographic trend data indicate Hispanic students may outnumber all other racial or ethnic groups within two years.
Likewise, suburban districts that serve students within the Tulsa city limits have also seen significant increases in the percentages of Hispanic students as part of their overall enrollments. Union schools are now composed of 24.1 percent Hispanic students, compared to 16.9 percent five years ago, while 9 percent of Jenks schools students are Hispanic, an increase of 2 percent over the same period.
TPS sites with 10 percent or higher growth in the overall percentage of students who are Hispanic are Bell, Cooper, Greeley, Jones, Lindbergh, Owen, Salk, Sequoyah and Skelly elementary schools; Hale Junior High; and East Central and Hale high schools.
While nearly every school in east Tulsa has seen significant increases in Hispanic student population, the site with the highest leap is a northside school - Sequoyah Elementary, 724 N. Birmingham Ave. There, Hispanic students represent 55 percent of the student population, compared to 35 percent five years ago.
Nearby is the school with the highest ratio of Hispanic students in the city, Springdale Elementary, 2510 E. Pine St., where two-thirds of the 530 students are of that ethnicity.
The eight other schools in TPS that are majority Hispanic or just shy of that mark are Celia Clinton, Cooper, Disney, Kendall-Whittier, Kerr, Lewis and Clark, McKinley and Mitchell elementary schools.
Melanie Poulter, senior planner for demography and geography at the Community Service Council, said Hispanic population growth patterns have provided vital lifeblood for sustaining Tulsa's inner city.
"The Hispanic population is growing in east Tulsa and near-north Tulsa. Hispanics are taking over areas that have been left by blacks and whites, which is a really important thing for our city," Poulter said.
She added that north Tulsa's percentage of black residents has been steadily declining since 1960.
"At that time, a huge portion of Tulsa County's black population lived in north Tulsa - 92 percent. In 2010, that percent had dropped to 43 percent," Poulter said.
There is also a general trend of white residents and young families of all races relocating out of the city to suburbs, rural parts of Tulsa County and surrounding counties, according to Poulter.
The notable shifts in the city's black population are evident in the halls of several schools.
At McLain High School, there were 539 black students in 2007, representing just over 90 percent of all students. Now, there are 365 black students, or 72 percent overall. McLain's white and Hispanic student populations both grew from around 3 percent to 10 percent of the school's overall enrollment.
Several elementary schools in the McLain feeder pattern are also seeing lower concentrations of black students.
Meanwhile, Webster High School's black student population has nearly doubled, from 121 to 237, accounting for 39 percent of the enrollment, compared to 23 percent five years ago.
Webster Principal Jim Rector said transfers from other school attendance areas and a more diverse population moving into his school's neighborhoods are both factors.
"I don't think it's any one thing. All of those things are involved. I don't have any hard and fast evidence. We are also retaining more students. Berryhill and Webster for the last 75 years have always had that rivalry. There is no longer that sense of them escaping (to Berryhill)," Rector said. "We don't differentiate between who is a transfer and who is not. A kid is a kid, regardless of where they came from."
South Tulsa schools are also more diverse than they were not so long ago.
Memorial High School and its nearby namesake junior high were composed of 36 percent black and 42 percent white students in 2007. Now, black students make up the largest percentage of any one race at both schools. Hispanic students account for one-fourth of the enrollment at the junior high and one-fifth of the enrollment at the high school.
Tulsa has also seen skyrocketing numbers of students who qualify for free or reduced-rate lunches based on the federal government's gauge for low-income families.
Districtwide, TPS now has 88 percent of its students on free or reduced-rate lunches, compared to about 67 percent in 2007. Back then, 16 school sites had fewer than 50 percent of students qualifying, but that number has dwindled to six sites today.
In Union, 42 percent of schools receive federal funding because of their high concentrations of low-income students.
"I think in the last five years we've seen more students moving into our district with other family members due to loss of job," said Jackie White, Union's executive director of student data and assessment. "I think the economy has driven many things, not just in Union, but across the entire state of Oklahoma."
The Jenks school district has changed significantly in terms of both student ethnicity and poverty.
"Compared to Tulsa and some other districts, it's not as much. But we have changed dramatically over the past 10 years in our demographics," said spokeswoman Bonnie Rogers.
For the past two years, Jenks East Elementary School has qualified for federal Title I assistance funding for schoolwide programs based on its large percentage of low-income students.
The school, at 91st Street and Harvard Avenue, is located in south Tulsa, which has a reputation as a higher-income area.
"The number of low-income students has increased due to the bad economy," Rogers said.
Susan Harris, senior vice president of education and workforce for the Tulsa Metro Chamber, said the movement of low-income populations into neighborhoods that previously were considered middle- to high-income areas is directly related to housing. With the rise of families in poverty, federally subsidized housing for the poor has spread outside the traditional low-income enclaves.
"We have seen over the last 20 years that lower-income people have more of an opportunity to choose where they want to live," she said. "People can choose where they want to live, whether it's closer to schools or their job."
Bunnell, at Memorial Junior High, said she has seen firsthand the evidence of the economic downturn on her students' families.
"We do still see a lot of movement of families moving in with grandparents or aunts and uncles. They tell us 'We're trying to stay in this area, but we had to move in with relatives to do it,' " she said.
Higher rates of mobility has also had a hand in the changing counts in Union schools. The district has a high number of students who live in apartments, typically a more mobile population. Fifty-two apartment complexes feed into the Union school district, White said.
Education researchers say the impact of frequent student mobility or "family transience" on urban schools' student achievement reflected in test scores is undeniable, and social problems arising from frequent school changes are common.
Mary Bourque, the superintendent of Chelsea Public Schools in Chelsea, Mass., wrote a study on the issue titled "Swapping Desks: The Impact of Mobility on Student Achievement," which goes so far as to say high student mobility is the "primary contributor" to the low academic achievement of many urban students.
"The correlation between students who move frequently and those who live below or near poverty is very high," she wrote.
DEMOGRAPHIC MAKEUP OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS THAT SERVE STUDENTS WITHIN THE TULSA CITY LIMITS
Sequoyah Elementary's Hispanic growth gradual
On Thursday afternoon, a white minivan pulled up in front of the school office, and out piled Remedio Rios and five of her children, ranging in age from 16 to 1. The oldest, Edeli Rios, had attended Sequoyah as a young child, but then the Rios family moved east, into the McKinley Elementary School attendance area.
They moved back into the Sequoyah neighborhood this summer - this time into a bigger house to accommodate their growing family. With her husband at work at the paint store where he is a manager, Remedio Rios came to enroll two of her children at Sequoyah with Edeli's help translating for the school office clerks.
"I'm excited," said fifth-grader Griseyda Rios.
"Yeah, we want to make some new friends," said her 8-year-old brother, Ualberto Rios, who will be in the third grade.
Longtime faculty members say the shift in Sequoyah's population from majority white to majority Hispanic occurred so gradually that they didn't notice it right away.
"You just accept the kids that come in and meet them where they're at," said P.E. teacher Dianna Potts, who has worked there more than 20 years. "I didn't notice the change until about 10 years ago when I started writing grants. The applications ask, 'What are the school's demographics?' "
As the Rios family filed out of the office, Cindy Steininger, who has been a teacher and counselor at Sequoyah since 1984, stopped to greet them.
"Rios is your last name? I know you!" she exclaimed, wrapping Edeli into a big hug. "We haven't had many Rioses."
Then Edeli introduced her to the school's two newest Rios students.
- Andrea Eger, World Staff Writer
Original Print Headline: Ethnic changes
Andrea Eger 918-581-8470 Kim Archer 918-581-8315
Sequoyah Elementary counselor Cindy Steininger (left) chats with former student Edeli Rios, 16, Edeli's sister Griseyda, 10, and their mother Remedio Rios, after Griseyda and another sibling were enrolled for school last week. CORY YOUNG/Tulsa World
Sequoyah Elementary School siblings Ualberto Rios (right), 8, and Griseyda Rios, 10, look at welcome papers after their older sister enrolled them for the upcoming school year. CORY YOUNG/Tulsa World